Complete guide to the Spanish alphabet: Pronunciation of 27 letters


Are you ready to learn Spanish?

Well, what better way to start this journey than to learn the ABC (el abecedario) of the Spanish language?

Look no further than this comprehensive guide to pronouncing and understanding all that the Spanish alphabet has to offer.

From tricky consonants such as “ñ” and “ll” to soft vowels like “u,” this post will provide an overview of every letter in detail, as well as the common pronunciation rules that hold true throughout any word!

It’s time to start learning with this great video from Spring Spanish (a project I’m a co-founder of)!

1. Overview of the Spanish alphabet

The Spanish alphabet – El abecedario has 27 letters.

That’s one more than the Modern English alphabet!

While the majority of the letters are similar to those in English, there are a few that differ in pronunciation and usage.

Let’s take a look at the following table that shows the phonetic pronunciation of the letter and you can also check out the example, too!

A/a/amor (love)
B/be/bueno (good)
C/se/ or /θe/casa (house)
D/de/día (day)
E/e/escuela (school)
F/efe/feliz (happy)
G/xe/ or /ge/gato (cat)
H/aʧe/ (silent)hola (hello)
I/i/isla (island)
J/xota/juego (game)
K/ka/kilómetro (kilometer)
L/ele/luna (moon)
M/eme/mano (hand)
N/ene/noche (night)
Ñ/eɲe/mañana (tomorrow)
O/o/oso (bear)
P/pe/perro (dog)
Q/ku/queso (cheese)
R/ere/rosa (rose)
S/ese/sol (sun)
T/te/tiempo (time)
U/u/uva (grape)
V/uve/verde (green)
W/doble uve/wafle (waffle)
X/ekis/examen (exam)
Y/i griega/yogur (yogurt)
Z/θeta/ or /seta/zorro (fox)

2. Tips for the pronunciation of Spanish letters

Pronouncing Spanish letters can be pretty easy with consistent practice.

We created a table for the Spanish Alphabet with pronunciation tips so you could easily memorize and practice them!

Spanish LetterEffortless Pronunciation Tip
APronounced like the “ah” in “father”
BSimilar to English “b,” but less plosive
C“S”-sound before ‘e’ or ‘i,’ “K”-sound otherwise
DSoft “d” sound, almost like “th” in “this”
EPronounced like the “e” in “bet”
FSimilar to English “f”
GHard like “g” in “go” or soft like “h” in “hello”
HSilent in Spanish
IPronounced like “ee” in “see”
JPronounced like the “h” in “hello”
KSimilar to English “k”
LSimilar to English “l”
MSimilar to English “m”
NSimilar to English “n”
ÑLike “ny” in “canyon”
OPronounced like the “o” in “go”
PSimilar to English “p,” but less plosive
QAlways followed by ‘u,’ pronounced like “k”
RA rolled/flipped “r,” like a soft “d”
SSimilar to English “s”
TSimilar to English “t,” but less plosive
UPronounced like “oo” in “food”
VSimilar to “b,” softer than English “v”
WOnly in foreign words, pronounced like English “w”
XUsually like “ks,” but can be “s” or “sh”
YPronounced like “j” in “yes”
Z“Th”-sound in Spain, “s”-sound in Latin America

3. Pronounce difficult letters: L, Ñ, J, G, R, Y

Although most of these letters don’t pose any challenge to anyone who wants to learn them, certain letters can still be difficult, especially for beginners.

Letters like L, Ñ, J, G, R, and Y have some unique pronunciation sounds.

In the next section, we’ll give you helpful tips and strategies to navigate these tricky letters, so you can improve your pronunciation and feel more confident when speaking Spanish.

L or LL?

The Spanish letter “L” is pronounced similar to its English counterpart, but a shift occurs when it is doubled up as “LL.”

While single “L” mirrors the English “l” as in love, “LL,” has a unique pronunciation that can vary based on regional dialect.

In most of Spain, “LL” is pronounced like the “y” in “yes,” whereas in parts of Latin America, it might sound closer to the “j” in “jeep” or the “s” in “measure”.

Lucky for you, we’ve got you covered with the latest article on ll in Spanish and the phenomenon called yeísmo.

And there’s also a great explanatory video by Spring Spanish about the differences of LL and Y in Spanish:

Examples for single L: luna (moon), sol (sun), leche (milk).

Examples for LL: lluvia (rain), cabello (hair), silla (chair).

Ñ like canyon

The letter “Ñ” is one of the unique features of the Spanish alphabet, not found in English.

It’s pronounced like the “ny” in the English word “canyon.”

The sound is created by placing the tongue against the hard palate and emitting a soft nasal sound.

Spanish examples:

  • mañana (morning or tomorrow)
  • señor *(*sir)
  • año (year)
  • niño (boy)
  • montaña (mountain)

J like hello

The letter “J” in Spanish is pronounced like a harsher version of the “h” in the English word “hello.”

It’s almost as if you’re clearing your throat.

This sound can be tricky for English speakers to master initially.

Spanish examples:

  • juego (game)
  • viaja (trip)
  • jirafa (giraffe)
  • joven (young)
  • jamón (ham)

Soft G and hard G

The letter “G” in Spanish can be a bit confusing because it has two different pronunciations:

  1. When “G” is followed by “a,” “o,” or “u,” it’s pronounced like the “g” in “go.” For example: gato (cat), grande (big), guerra (war). – Note: The ‘u’ in guerra is silent.
  2. When it’s followed by “e” or “i,” it’s pronounced like the “h” in “hero.” For example: gente (people), general (general), gigante (giant).


If you see “güe” or “güi,” the “u” is not silent, and the “g” maintains its hard sound. For example: pingüino (penguin), agüero (omen), vergüenza (shame).

R or RR?

The Spanish “R” and “RR” are notorious among English speakers. More about how to roll your Rs in this video:

  1. A single “R” in the middle or at the end of words has a soft, tapped sound, similar to the American pronunciation of the “tt” in “butter.” For example: caro (expensive), toro (bull), verde (green).
  2. The “RR,” however, is a rolled sound, created by vibrating the tongue against the hard palate. This sound appears in words like: perro (dog), arroz (rice), correr (run).

Y like yes

The pronunciation of “Y” varies between Spanish-speaking countries.

In most cases, it’s pronounced like the “y” in “yes.”

In some regions – particularly Argentina and Uruguay – it’s pronounced like the “zh” sound in the English word “measure” or even the “sh” in “shoe.” For example, “yo” (I) could sound more like “sho” in those regions.

Spanish examples:

  • yate (yacht)
  • ayer (yesterday)
  • playa (beach)
  • yogur (yogurt)
  • yema (yolk)

4. Learn the letters of the Spanish alphabet and practice with Conversation Based Chunking

Learning the Spanish alphabet is simple and straightforward.

With a little bit of practice, you’ll soon be able to get down the pronunciation of each letter!

Take a look at this funny photo full of animals to practice the Spanish alphabet!

spanish alphabet animals
Source: Depositphotos

Learning Spanish can also help open the door to countless possibilities, from becoming better-versed in a new language to being part of a global community.

If you’re serious about wanting to learn fast, sign up for our Conversational Based Chunking Starter Pack to get the practice and feedback you need!

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